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FBI Senior Intelligence Officer Essay on HUMINT

Nov. 7 2016 — 7:08p.m.

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FEDERALBUR.EAUOf=INVESTIGATION SENIORl~TELLIGEHCEOFFICERESSAY 22 August 2(113 (t) Tile Impact of the BI!?\IINTSquads oa FBl's CoUectionCapabilities (ll Background (l:.1lFOL0 ) In the afterna±. oftte anach o: September200l, the f3I appropriately re: :>gniz:,j the imperative to bu:ik.a comprehen s~·e intelligence strucrureinorder:o :full)· address its respor.Sl"bilitie s as a memberof th=CS . Intelligence Communi ty i~ S[C). A signifi cant step toward that goal , 1..ias the 200J creation of the Office of [nteligeoce.. \Yruch evok =j h :o the Natirnal Security B:-anct in 2005, and the d=\·eloprnento: 1):>licies and d=il berate., specin:, :-epeitable proces;es ie.sign:-d n execute the F3I's inte.D.ig ence rrissior.. (l:' IFOLO) Specii Agents :sAs) have been an integral part :J: thi; m:ss:c,r, fror.it'l? m.,t; et. Inruall y assignedto the Fielj lr.teD:ig~:e G:-oups a.1d relocatedto H.uman[nteligence (HU:MIKT) Squads '.vith the100Sl:mr.ct :>f the Str,tegic E-xecution f: ~arr. l .O~H"Jl\•fiKTSAs havebeendirec:ec:o focus or: Cc1:.frentialH..tn2.r.S::mrce (CHS) devel:Jprr.entar.c recruitner,t. Rather tl:.2.tl ',\ •ormg acm1e trJ:estigati:>n s. thei'goal ha; beento i:ie:Gti.i r mviduals \,,i:hplacer.ient andac:e ;s IO strategic threat is.;ues.. Thisma.·date err.powersHL-:~·IlNT Squads, anc ±e SAs as.signecto them.:o fulfill a •is.ead&-essed uniq·Jeandfr.lP,orta..1.r r::> le Mt ::>then, hy investigative;quads;it a.1socementsthe FBI's role as the primar y collector of h::nest:icintelligence. ClassifiedBy: C37V\'78823 Derivej From: FB NSIC, dated2012062£ Oecla~sify On: 20381231 (() "LS.IC Expectations for FBI Intelligence CoUection (~!·1*") When brJefe1by his Sy5tems andR.esc·urc: Ana1ysis Staffin Janua~' 2012 on its Stra !€gic E·,;ai'uationRepG.11. FBIfrom a H1J:\£1IT Pro:p 11cttw1 , Directorofl~ationalIntelligence (DJ\11) J~es Clapperindicit:d th: FBrs dcn =stic intelligence fa:us is a..12ss=t .o theUSIC tbrt sinuld be fauded andex1>=-essedhis SU?J)Ort for the Hl ~11'1I N':' Squad coLcept.Th: r:pon correctly recogrued thatthe FBI "play~ 2 criticalrole '4itrun the Intelli i ence Corrnnurrity 's :iumanfatelliger.ce (Hl}MIJ\TT) cisciiine. No :>tlterfederal,s:ate,or b:a1 programsha:esF3I's authorities and resl)Dnsiliilities for domesti: in:elligence ccllection.,. In addi:i:m,the reportrecognizedthatwhiJethe FBI has iruegrarednational-!e\·el requirementsintc• its intelligencecolle:rii>neffo:-ts , "FBI re;nrting remain;fo.:used :JnFB[-identiliedinformatic '1irJeeds tha1have an ICnexu;_Ir, ~ecogritiontiw.eo( FBI has begunto devefop fil-;:\.{Th,1 squads"l .'lhose pUfP05e is to develor, soW'c es anc collect in:eiligenc e outs11e of predicatedi!r,,estigatic,r ,s,,, notir.gthe FBI'; ackn:m-ledgme m of its res.pr:>11sibiliri to ~eportintelligencebeyondthat wtbc.h is dem•ed £:-om tivestigatioos.1 It is ftis l (U"li: OlJI:) ) .\ ~. e, o! ..v:111.'--lilxn :he~a-v,~m ·>f:EJt=ti,,~Otl?-1 l 23H :o thu1a.'llilgo~FBLil.A1u txtDwtM . inOwg ~"S~ -~ ~ lsu: Cn.ar;ea,; Dom ;,.;ci,: D~ fEpre&a1t..tiv~ in=~ fa :

cailecti:>n·~hichtal,:esadvantag:of th: er,or:r.c,us availablewithinthe United miol.lllt:>f irit~:: States that canbe colect:d atlo·.,·:ost andlc,wrisk. intelligencecoilectio:i\':lrichis a cri:ica1 stepin 2c.dr~s.sng g2psid:ntifi~.dby TRP. • (ll) CurrentStue of FBI Collectionifforts (l!/IFOUO)\Vhtl:! the FBI hasaggressi1.;ely pursu~ intellJfger.ce collectionsinceSepcembe:2001,it has r.ot 2.djust~its burness modelsufficier.t ly to suppo~theserefocnsec efforts..ft.tttougb SAsare expectedto :naintcinar.awarenessoftbe inte!liger ,ce issuescir,which their CHSscan 1:iotentialy report,it •.vould be di;ingenuou s to argue that SAsassignedto tradition2.l im,1stigativesquads 2n2cti\.:eJypursuingthecc,Dectionofirit~lligen:e !e. c-utsideof tbe cases forwruchthey . 2reres1>onsio . (l-/lFOUO)Thisis whyHl~ilNTSAs3feso cr:t:cal b the FBI's InteiligettceProgram. Un:ortunate.~', HlJ1.,•fIN:' SAs a:-enott:rea:ec. Il:e. mcettti,.,ized to be.,or t:ratt1ed as trueintelligcr.ce to as "case collectors.A] S.4..sa:-e;tiltrefe:rr~:i agents," still widergo file ::-eviews, and so forth. While:-ImvfIN'TSA:;have a respon;ibtl:tt :o help address their offices, prioritythreats-wruch will re:;ultin the recruibent :>fCHSswhose rq:,cn.i:n g suppo:-fs specificinvestigations,vbere substwtial intelligencegap; have beer. ideotifie::l-thi; shomd r.mbe tbeirprrr..21')' focus.Doingso ·.Yould only serve to squandera uniquereso1Jrce 2r.dresultin the follo•,ving mun tenc.edCimSequences: • (Ul.lf Ol:O) 'IbeFB l' spr:>ductionof mte!ig::nc e monnationreports(IlRs :, \.'\ •c·uldbe rea.icedin general.ar .cthe Btl"eau \.,,ouldli.··dyi;rr:>duce f::\verms that speci6C31l:, adcressp:ioriryUSIC ime~g~ce requirements . CU. 'IFOCO)field officescou}c.J>:>ter.tiall y prioritirec,rl~r' thos.ethre2t; into whid. they have a::tr,e investigation;as ares.ultof rec.ucedhtelligence colle:rioncapahilities . (C/."FOl-0) Tiie m.os! effectivewayto leverage SA .., . JUS . T. 3.)· c..,; .~s--w ho ~~J:1".se . o2 (I f.t.. u1e £eld SA ccmp]ement-is to focus.±eirskillson developingCESs 'WffilpJace:ner.tar.c.accessto strategictYeat issuesin suppcn of critic21r.2tiooal ui Th ,f'T'l,.1 IT .n. ui: ~ll J' intelligenceissue; (rueha; the KationalIntelligence PriorityF~amavork)or IB: issues(such a.sthe TR.P Band I-ill threats). not as case foe:iersto investigariv-e;quads. (L) Implicationsof Potential fil:\11..\,"T Agent Funded StaffingLevel Reductions (t_;/.'f OUO) TheFBI sb.:>uld ap?foad: the absc,rpci:);1 of fun::ledstaffu:glevel (FSl) reduction; strategically t:>er,sure the organizationcan continue to addresshofu rt:slaw enforcementa.1.::l intelliger.ce mis:;ions. If :ms fo :-fU}..ffiJT Srn:c.dsor HUivfrr-.~ SAFSLs re ir:discrim:r.ateso a; to av(){d 1iinthe comparatively less pain:ul rec.uctions,Vlf. invesngativeJrOgratnS, t.iieFBi' s In:elligence Programwill likely berende:edin~otem. Fr:>ir .a largercrrganizati:r.ial ,~e,Y?:>lilt, drastic:-educt:c,r ,s in Hl.~ ·fil.i'"TSA?SL wouldsenda mess.age10 :he FBI ·workfo::-ce andits partner age:ncie;that the RJrea u doesr.c•t ...-.tlue intelligencea.,dcoosic.ersit :he orgaruzation' s leastimportantprogram.).•b:-eover, su::ha decision·,..,-ould signaltha:the FBI's pushto becomean intelligence . age:icy has ftled . (Cl.T OCO) Addmonally . theFBImust takeinto • ,:u t1fOUO) ToeThreatReviewanc. Prioritiz3. ti;m •:':'RP) proc~sswculdbe ,'\·eakenedby d1e lackof proactive FBI' :s respomibilit: ttY.!tt.1le~~:.ntalligenceand~t:id.lyc-lilec~ f.:n~.gn i.r.t~;e:i~ cOOS1deration th: expectatior .s ofihe Office oftbe 2 (UN'FOUO) Tru ~lle, ha~ on ,i..l:i.provi,W'b y :1eDi.tedaau o:"Inttlli~e::ice 'sS:rate:ic Planrin: anc.Pd1i:xnau:eAll.al)s1s :Jn:.t, r.epment:s ti\! ~=~ofru:JRS';pen"lKr)"SA~ ir. the ~ U .... otk.r1g int~i;~e imtl~s (347>,i.;;ofJun: 2 :, 2•)l 3,,re_µrd}<'9 9CtbwtaJ'~ pathcfec.iErU,lton,«,mpuei! lo tlu,t,:xal~o f ncru'l.pi!:tV .s«ySAs (1C,065)m;n=dti> !ru ii~t ~o::wd O, 2•): 3.

and fa.iven:orcemer.tcommuruties,and the3ureau' s Cor,greisbnal ov~seeri, aDof whomdema.1ifae fBl devebp sm1r:esand.colle:: intelligence:mtside of pre<llcated i:nvest:igari:m;; to prerr.arurelyreiu.:e or elirni:rmethe progr2!11 beforeit has reachedfull rnaturitvwou1doea di;setviceto U.S.national se:uriry. (C) Outlook ( ..:/i'f OUO) RegardlessofhO'-vthe FBI stn.1.crures it; squads mresponseto futurebudgetaryconstraints requiringSA FSl :-eductc<fls, it nrustretainand imp:-o,•ethe Hl~U:KTP:-ogram,. 6e HL~1JD-""T SA position, andtl-.e:Il-:\ill~T S~1.:,dconstruct. Hl.J~·ffl,1 SAs, ·.mencumbe:edby inve:;tigative responst"biiities., pro"idetl-.eFBI with invahi;fo :e \,·aming abotr.the FBI's threatpictJ:"e"betweenthe cases." -:bey a:-eme onlyoperationaleotities fully Theh.f2ct of HU.MIN':'squadsis easyto :>vet'look. n::>t b&ausetl:eimpactis insig:ificciltbut be:ause the FBih:o.ssc, far failedto adequ:o.tel). •measu::-e I:.t-~ON"Tperfornance. Beforeconsidering dismantfuig:-WMINTsquadsand di;bursmg fu~ :-esc ,m-:e;. it is imper2ti\:e th2ttile IB- undertakea ;eriousre,>ieivof the impacttheyhaveon the :Y.garuzation 's abiliy to exernteits inteligeu.e ,: :>llectio:n 01ssion. ·:U'1Fo-...:o)TheIBI has n:>t yetde:emrinedhow it ,,'111: ptli'Sueits in•vestigaff\,e 2j]diruel::igenc e :-espc,nsibilitie5, h parallelandwrthidenticalfervo:-, tl:>r ba;it fuDycommitteditselfto doin 5 so. Ul'l1ess tlte FBIdecides ::r.porately to prO\~c.es·ustained Squads and the unique :fun::ion supportto Hl 1.-1Th.1T ilieyperform,the organization 's abilityto ;uccessfullyexe:me its i:nt:!.lliget1e~ .:_,llection :nissianremainsin peril.

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