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NSA Intelligence Relationship with Australia

Aug. 19 2017 — 9:58p.m.

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TOP SECRET//SI//REL TO USA, FVEY National Security Agency Central Security Service April 2013 Information Paper (U) Subject: NSA Intelligence Relationship with Australia (U) Executive Summary (S//REL) The mutually beneficial partnership between the United States and Australia continues to grow. Australia‘s Intelligence Community (AIC), which includes NSA‘s SIGINT partner, the Defence Signals Directorate (DSD), looks to the U.S. Intelligence Community in general, and NSA specifically, for continued guidance as it expands its cyber capabilities. DSD continues to contribute in significant ways to efforts on China, cyber, and support to military operations (SMO) in Afghanistan. DSD has broken new ground in several operational areas and accelerated evolving cyber policies to meet the challenges of multiple operators in the cyber domain. (S//REL) Although budget cuts have constrained DSD‘s funding and personnel, DSD believes the cuts will be manageable. Most new personnel and investment at DSD are associated with cyber operations: Computer Network Exploitation (CNE), Computer Network Attack (CNA), Computer Network Defense (CND) – DSD‘s three cyber authorities. There is no U.S. Cyber Command equivalent in Australia as DSD performs that function for the Australian Defence Force. Mr. Ian McKenzie has been Director DSD since 2007. (U) Key Issues (C//REL) In response to malicious cyber attacks, the Australian Government recently established the Australian Cyber Security Centre to improve partnerships between government agencies and with industry. By the end of 2013, the Government’s most sophisticated cyber security capabilities—from across the national security community—will be located in one facility. This will create a more holistic picture of the cyber threat and facilitate faster and more effective responses to serious cyber incidents. There will be improved interaction with international and industry partners and will make Australia a harder target for malicious cyber activities. (TS//SI//REL) The AIC plans to further develop and maintain assessment and collection capabilities to provide more comprehensive intelligence coverage China is changing the strategic balance in the Pacific by expanding its interests in the Asia– Pacific region and the Indian Ocean, modernizing its military, striking a more assertive strategic posture, and flaunting its power. Increased emphasis on China will not only help Derived From: NSA/CSSM 1-52 Dated: 20070108 Declassify On: 20320801 TOP SECRET//SI//REL TO USA, FVEY

TOP SECRET//SI//REL TO USA, FVEY ensure the security of Australia, but also synergize with the U.S. in its renewed emphasis on Asia and the Pacific. (U) What NSA Provides to the Partner (S//REL) NSA provides cryptologic products/services to the Government of Australia through DSD, on virtually all subjects, particularly those related to the Pacific Rim. NSA shares technology, cryptanalytic capabilities, and resources for state-of-the-art collection, processing and analytic efforts. NSA will continue to work closely with Australia to meet its commitments as the U.S reallocates efforts toward Asia and the Pacific. (U) What the Partner Provides to NSA (TS//SI//REL) NSA and DSD have agreed to specific divisions of effort, with the Australians solely responsible for reporting on multiple targets in the Pacific area, including Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore, based on their unique language capabilities and geographic accesses. In addition, DSD has primary reporting responsibility regardless of geographic region. DSD provides access to commercial and foreign/domestic satellites from sites in Geraldton and Darwin, High Frequency (HF) collection and Direction Finding (DF) from three sites; and, manning of the operations floor at Joint Defense Facility at Pine Gap (RAINFALL), a site which plays a significant role in supporting both intelligence activities and military operations. In addition, DSD provides NSA with access to terrorism-related communications collected inside Australia. (U) Success Stories (TS//SI//REL) The close collaboration between NSA and DSD has been particularly useful in providing cryptologic insight into Chinese targets. A high-level framework for collaboration between DSD and NSA on understanding the life cycle of China is in coordination. Australia’s overall intelligence effort on China, as a target, is already significant and will increase in 2013, as it draws down its presence in Afghanistan. (S//REL) Further evidence of DSD’s close collaboration with NSA and the U.S. is DSD’s membership in several coalitions, including SIGINT Seniors Pacific (SSPAC)1, SIGINT Seniors Europe (SSEUR)2, and the Afghanistan SIGINT Coalition (AFSC)3. DSD is chairing both the SSPAC Executive Board and Analytic Working Group, from 2012 to 2014. (TS//SI//REL) An example of Australia’s support to international cyber security is DSD’s SPARTA campaign, which dovetails with the U.S.-directed Operation DAYBREAK, a long-term 1 (S//REL) SSPAC - Australia, Canada, France, India, Korea, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, United Kingdom, and United States 2 (S//REL) SSEUR - Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States 3 (S//REL) AFSC - Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and United States TOP SECRET//SI//REL TO USA, FVEY 2

TOP SECRET//SI//REL TO USA, FVEY effort to counter Chinese theft of sensitive business information and proprietary technology. SPARTA has already met with success since being rolled out in February 2013. (U) Problems/Challenges with the Partner (U) None. (U//FOUO) Prepared by: Foreign Affairs Directorate Country Desk Officer, Australia TOP SECRET//SI//REL TO USA, FVEY 3

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