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The Intercept v. National Institutes of Health

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IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK FIRST LOOK INSTITUTE, INC., and SHARON LERNER; Plaintiffs, -against￾NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH, Defendant. Case No. 21 Civ. 4024 COMPLAINT Plaintiffs First Look Institute, Inc. (“FLI”), publisher of The Intercept, and Sharon Lerner, an employee of FLI (collectively “The Intercept”), by and through their attorneys, Emery Celli Brinckerhoff Abady Ward & Maazel LLP, for their complaint alleges as follows: PRELIMINARY STATEMENT 1. This is an action brought pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act (“FOIA”), 5 U.S.C. §§ 552, et seq., by FLI––a non-profit American news organization that seeks to provide the public with original, independent journalism concerning the institutions and individuals responsible for shaping our world––and its reporter, Sharon Lerner. The Intercept brings this action for injunctive and other appropriate relief, seeking the release of agency records from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an organization within the Department of Health and Human Services (“DHS”). 2. Through this action, The Intercept seeks to compel the NIH to disclose records demonstrative of funding it provided to virologist Dr. Peter Daszak to study the emergence of zoonotic diseases such as Sars-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. This information is crucial to the public’s understanding of U.S. and international efforts to Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9 Filed 05/07/21 Page 1 of 11

2 conclusively determine the origins of SARS-CoV-2. Accurate information about how the virus acquired the ability to infect humans is crucial to understand the current pandemic as well as inform efforts to prevent future pandemics. The public has an indelible interest in both. 3. According to press reports, Dr. Daszak is the sole U.S. scientist on the World Health Organization (WHO) team investigating the origins of the virus. The panel’s investigatory efforts have come under increasing scrutiny due to China’s limited cooperation with the investigation and, importantly, conflicts of interest of many of the investigators, including Dr. Daszak.1 Media reports indicate that Dr. Daszak has deep, longstanding ties to the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), a Chinese research facility central to questions about the origin of the pandemic. 4. One theory of the virus’ origin is that it originated from WIV, which the U.S. government accused of conducting controversial “gain of function” experiments that may have given bat coronaviruses the ability to infect humans.2 U.S. officials have also alleged that WIV lacked adequate safety precautions and suffered an outbreak of COVID-19-like symptoms among its researchers in fall 2019, shortly before the world’s first COVID-19 cases were 1 See, e.g., Wall Street Journal Editorial Board, “Who Are the Covid Investigators?” (Feb. 15, 2021) https://www.wsj.com/articles/who-are-the-covid-investigators-11613401955; Colin D. Butler, et al., “Open Letter: Call for a Full and Unrestricted International Forensic Investigation into The Origins of COVID-19” (Mar. 4, 2021) https://s.wsj.net/public/resources/documents/COVID%20OPEN%20LETTER%20FINAL%20030421%20(1).pdf. 2 Wall Street Journal Editorial Board, supra, n. 1; U.S. State Department internal cables from Beijing Embassy to Washington, D.C., “China Opens First Bio Safety Level 4 Laboratory”, (Jan. 19, 2018) available at: https://context￾cdn.washingtonpost.com/notes/prod/default/documents/109d57ba-42dd-4215-9f4e-39d068ceed31/note/4f90a905- 2b3f-44e0-8cb5-2d9ea5dfc62a.#page=1; Josh Rogin, “In 2018, Diplomats Warned of Risky Coronavirus Experiments in A Wuhan Lab. No One Listened.” Axios, (Mar. 8, 2021) https://www.politico.com/news/ magazine/2021/03/08/josh-rogin-chaos-under-heaven-wuhan-lab-book-excerpt-474322; Yuan Yang and Christian Shepherd, “WHO Investigators Probe Wuhan Virology Lab”, Financial Times, (Feb. 3, 2021) https://www.ft.com/content/8a28b91b-d98f-414d-a6c0-92f2346af1df. Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9 Filed 05/07/21 Page 2 of 11

3 reported in Wuhan.3 The WHO investigation team is seeking to evaluate the veracity of these claims.4 Dr. Daszak’s apparent conflicts of interest may inhibit the team’s ability to do so. 5. Dr. Daszak’s non-profit, EcoHealth Alliance, received a $7.5 million grant from the NIH to study the process by which bat coronaviruses gain the ability to infect humans in partnership with WIV.5 Dr. Daszak also signed a public statement “strongly condemn[ing] the theory that the virus originated at WIV as a dangerous “conspiracy theor[y]” likely to “jeopardise [sic] our global fight against this virus.”6 The public is entitled to know whether Dr. Daszak’s deep, ongoing ties to WIV and stated views about the origins of COVID-19 create conflicts of interest that may cast doubt on Dr. Daszak’s––and consequently, the WHO team’s––ability to impartially investigate the outbreak. 6. NIH-funded research, in part, gives rise to the appearance of Dr. Daszak’s conflicts of interest capable of impeding his ability to adequately investigate the origins of the pandemic. These apparent conflicts of interest engendered widely-reported criticism from the scientific community and U.S. government, who casted doubt on the accuracy and integrity of 3 Id. 4 Yang and Shepherd, supra n. 2. 5 Helen Branswell, “NIH Awards $7.5 Million Grant to EcoHealth Alliance, Months After Uproar over Political Interference”, StatNews (Aug. 27, 2020) https://www.statnews.com/2020/08/27/nih-awards-grant-to-ecohealth￾alliance-months-after-uproar-over-political-interference/; Nidhi Subbaraman, “ ‘Heinous!’: Coronavirus Researcher Shut Down for Wuhan-lab Link Slams New Funding Restrictions”, Nature (Aug. 21, 2020) https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02473-4. 6 Charles Calisher, et al., “Statement in Support of The Scientists, Public Health Professionals, and Medical Professionals of China Combatting COVID-19,” The Lancet (Feb. 18, 2020) https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736(20)30418-9. Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9 Filed 05/07/21 Page 3 of 11

4 the WHO investigation.7 In part due to this backlash, WHO abandoned efforts to release an interim report on its findings thus far.8 7. COVID-19 has plunged the global economy into recession and sickened 150 million people worldwide, more than 3 million of whom passed away.9 The devastation wrought by COVID-19 underscores the need to understand the origins of the virus so that the U.S. and other governments and private institutions can most effectively prevent the next pandemic. For example, it will shed light on whether government spending on high-level biosafety labs money is well spent, or if it would be better spent on other pandemic-prevention efforts.10 8. The public has a strong interest in understanding the origins of the outbreak and how NIH funding decisions may impede their access to such information. Likewise, the public has an interest in learning what, if anything, the NIH knew about Dr. Daszak’s involvement with WIV activities that may have contributed to the pandemic. 9. On September 3, 2020, The Intercept reporter Sharon Lerner submitted a FOIA request (“the Request”) to the NIH that went to the heart of the public health matters described above. The NIH did not substantively respond to the request until December 18, 2020, when the agency denied it in full. The Intercept filed an administrative appeal challenging this denial on December 26, 2020. NIH failed to respond to The Intercept’s administrative appeal within the 7 Betsy McKay, et al., “WHO Investigators to Scrap Plans for Interim Report on Probe of Covid-19 Origins”, (Mar. 5, 2021) https://www.wsj.com/articles/who-investigators-to-scrap-interim-report-on-probe-of-covid-19-origins￾11614865067?mod=hp_lead_pos5. 8 Id. 9 Coronavirus World Map: Tracking the Global Outbreak, N.Y. Times, last updated April 29, 2021 https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/world/coronavirus-maps html. 10 Fabian Koh, “Budget Debate: $90 to Be Spent on Singapore’s First Top-Level Biosafety Lab, to Be Operational by 2025”, The Straights Times, (Mar. 1, 2021) https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/politics/90-million-to-be￾spent-on-singapores-first-top-level-biosafety-lab-to-be. Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9 Filed 05/07/21 Page 4 of 11

5 statutory 20 business-day time limit for an agency to respond to an administrative appeal. With this case, The Intercept seeks to vindicate their rights and the public’s rights to government transparency under FOIA. PARTIES 10. Plaintiff First Look Institute, Inc. (“FLI”) is a not-for-profit American news organization headquartered at 114 5th Avenue, New York, NY 10011. FLI owns and operates several journalistic outlets, including The Intercept, an award-winning, nationally recognized news organization with a reputation for holding power to account. The Intercept’s in-depth investigations focus on politics, war, surveillance, corruption, the environment, science, technology, criminal justice, and the media. 11. Plaintiff Sharon Lerner is a distinguished investigative reporter for The Intercept currently covering the environment and health. Her work has also appeared in other publications, including the New York Times, The Nation, and the Washington Post. She has won numerous awards for her journalism, including from the Newswoman’s Club of New York, the Society for Environmental Journalism, and the American Public Health Association. She submitted the Request on behalf of and an agent for FLI in her capacity as a staff investigative reporter. FLI and Lerner (together, The Intercept) accordingly jointly bring this suit to obtain the records in question. 12. Defendant NIH is an agency of the federal government that has possession, custody, and/or control of the records that The Intercept seeks. NIH is headquartered at 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892. “NIH is the steward of medical and behavioral Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9 Filed 05/07/21 Page 5 of 11

6 research for the nation.”11 It invests roughly $41.7 billion in medical research each year.12 As of 2018, NIH was the world’s largest funder of medical research.13 JURISDICTION AND VENUE 13. This Court has subject matter jurisdiction over this action and personal jurisdiction over the Department of Commerce pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1331 and 5 U.S.C. § 552(a)(4)(B). 14. Venue is proper in this district under 5 U.S.C. § 552(a)(4)(B). 15. Plaintiffs are deemed to have exhausted all its administrative remedies pursuant to 5 U.S.C. § 552(a)(6)(C) because the NIH has failed to respond to within the statutorily mandated time limit of twenty working days after receipt of an administrative appeal. 5 U.S.C. §§ 552 (a)(6)(C)(i). FACTS 16. FOIA “focuses on the citizens’ right to be informed about ‘what their government is up to,’” by fostering the release of “[o]fficial information that sheds light on an agency’s performance of its statutory duties.” DOJ v. Reporters Comm. for Freedom of the Press, 489 U.S. 749, 750, 773 (1989) (citation omitted). “[D]isclosure, not secrecy, is the dominant objective” of FOIA. Dep’t of Interior v. Klamath Water Users Protective Ass’n, 532 U.S. 1, 8 (2001) (internal quotation marks and citations omitted). 11 National Institutes of Health, “About the NIH” (Jul. 7, 2015), https://www nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/nih￾almanac/about-nih#:~:text=NIH%20is%20the%20steward%20of,and%20reduce%20illness%20and%20disability. 12 National Institutes of Health, “Budget” (Jun. 29, 2020), https://www nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/budget. 13 Robin Seaton Jefferson, “How The Largest Funder of Biomedical Research in The World Spends Your Money,” Forbes, (Dec. 21, 2018), https://www forbes.com/sites/robinseatonjefferson/2018/12/21/how-the-largest-public￾funder-of-biomedical-research-in-the-world-spends-your-money/?sh=1b59c07827b9. Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9 Filed 05/07/21 Page 6 of 11

7 17. The Intercept, like other news organizations, plays a critical role in providing information to citizens about “what their government is up to.” Indeed, the First Amendment’s guarantee of freedom of the press is meant to enable journalists to play an “essential role in our democracy,” to “bare the secrets of government and inform the people.” New York Times Co. v. United States, 403 U.S. 713, 717 (1971) (Black, J., concurring). 18. Through the FOIA request at issue in this case, The Intercept seeks to fulfill its journalistic function and shine a public light on NIH funding that creates an apparent conflict of interest for the sole U.S. researcher on the WHO team assembled to investigate the origins of COVID-19. I. The Request 19. On September 3, 2020, The Intercept’s investigative reporter Sharon Lerner submitted the Request to the NIH by email via iFOIA.org. A true and correct copy of this request is attached hereto as Exhibit A. The Request was for “access to and copies of proposals for and all written communications relating to” 32 specifically enumerated grants to Dr. Daszak and Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. to study zoonotic diseases. A full list of the grants appears in the Request, attached as Exhibit A. 20. Gorka Garcia-Malene, a Freedom of Information Officer for the NIH, acknowledged Ms. Lerner’s request and denied her request for expediated processing on September 17, 2020. A true and correct copy of this letter is attached as Exhibit B. The letter summarily concluded that Ms. Lerner’s request, did “not meet the standards of ‘compelling need,’” despite that Ms. Lerner is “a person primarily engage in disseminating information” and the ongoing pandemic generated “urgency to inform the public concerning actual or alleged Federal Government activity[,]” a “compelling need” standard set forth by the D.C. Circuit and quoted in the NIH’s response letter. Ex. B p. 3. Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9 Filed 05/07/21 Page 7 of 11

8 21. The NIH’s expedited processing denial letter promised to “do everything possible to comply with [The Intercept’s] request in a timely manner.” Ex. B. 22. FOIA requires the NIH to respond in 20 working days –– not “in a timely manner.” 5 U.S.C. § 552 (a)(6)(A)(i). 23. No provision of the statute gives an agencies carte blanche to set its own amorphous, vague deadlines designed to give itself latitude to respond to requests at its convenience. 24. The NIH never notified The Intercept that “unusual circumstances” warranted delay past the ordinary 20-day deadline. 25. NIH did not ask Ms. Lerner to narrow her request––nor would it have been reasonable to do so. Ms. Lerner’s request articulated the exact grant and related communications she sought, including the agency, year, name, grant recipient, and for most items, size of the grant in dollars. This level of detail tailored the Request to target a limited number of documents, directing NIH to the exact documents sought. II. The Denial 26. NIH provided no determination––intermediate or final––on this request, nor any indication of when it would do so, until First Look’s counsel made several follow-ups attempts on December 15 and 17, more than 100 days after Ms. Lerner filed the request. 27. On December 18, NIH FOIA Officer Gorka Garcia-Malene sent Ms. Lerner a letter denying her request in full pursuant to Title 5 U.S.C. § 552 (b)(7)(A) (“Exemption 7A”) and 45 C.F.R. § 5.31 (g)(1), both of which authorize agencies to withhold “records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes” that “[c]ould reasonably be expected to interfere with enforcement proceedings[.]” A true and correct copy of this letter is attached hereto as Exhibit C. Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9 Filed 05/07/21 Page 8 of 11

9 28. It its letter, the NIH summarily claimed that this exemption applied because the requested records “involve pending investigations.” Ex. C. The denial letter never claimed that the requested documents were compiled for law enforcement purposes. To the contrary, common-sense would dictate that the grant proposals were created pursuant to the process of funding scientific research, rather than pursuant to a law enforcement investigation. Moreover, the Request sought individual records, not any investigatory file that may exist. Exemption 7A therefore does not apply to the requested records. 29. In the denial letter, the NIH did not claim that or explain why “disclosure would harm an interest protected by an exemption” as required by 5 U.S.C. § 552 (a)(8)(A). Because the NIH did not articulate specific reasons why disclosure would result in harm to an investigation, Exemption 7A does not apply. III. The Appeal 30. Plaintiff, by and through the counsel, filed an administrative appeal of NIH’s denial on December 26, 2020. A true and correct copy of this appeal letter is attached hereto as Exhibit D. The appeal argued that the requested records were not shielded from disclosure by Exemption 7A, and thus must be produced. 31. FOIA required Defendant Agency to respond within 20 working-days. 5 U.S.C. § 552 (a)(6)(A)(ii). This appeal was due on or about January 28, 2021. The NIH did not respond to the appeal by this date, and, as a result, constructively denied it. This exhausted FLI’s administrative remedies, rendering this civil complaint ripe for review. 5 U.S.C. § 552 (a)(6)(C)(i). 32. To date, NIH has not responded to the appeal. Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9 Filed 05/07/21 Page 9 of 11

10 FIRST CAUSE OF ACTION (Violation of FOIA for failure to release responsive records) 33. Plaintiffs repeat, reallege, and incorporate the allegations in the foregoing paragraphs as though fully set forth herein. 34. The NIH is an agency subject to FOIA, 5 U.S.C. § 552(f), and therefore had an obligation to release responsive records not subject to a specific exemption. 35. The NIH’s denial of The Intercept’s entire FOIA request in reliance on a plainly inapplicable exemption, 5 U.S.C. § 552 (b)(7)(A), demonstrates that the Defendant agency violated FOIA, 5 U.S.C. § 552(a)(3), by failing to disclose all responsive records in its possession at the time of the Request without providing a lawful reason for withholding any records as to which it is claimed an exemption. REQUEST FOR RELIEF WHEREFORE, Plaintiffs respectfully request that this Court: a. Declare that the records sought by the Request, as more particularly described above and in Exhibit A, are public records pursuant to 5 U.S.C. § 552, that the NIH improperly withheld the documents pursuant to 5 U.S.C. § 552(b)(7)(A), that Exemption 7A does not apply, and that the records must be disclosed; b. Order the NIH to provide those records to Plaintiffs, including electronic copies of records stored in electronic format, within 20 business days of the Court’s order; c. Award Plaintiffs the costs of this proceeding, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, as authorized by FOIA; and d. Grant Plaintiffs such other and further relief as this Court deems just and proper. Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9 Filed 05/07/21 Page 10 of 11

11 Dated: New York, New York May 5, 2021 EMERY CELLI BRINCKERHOFF ABADY WARD & MAAZEL LLP By: /s/Debra Greenberger Andrew G. Celli, Jr. Debra L. Greenberger 600 Fifth Avenue, 10th Floor New York, New York 10020 (212) 763-5000 FIRST LOOK INSTITUTE, INC. David S. Bralow Victoria J. Noble* 114 5th Ave New York, NY 10011-5604 Attorneys for Plaintiffs * Application for pro hac vice admission to be submitted. Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9 Filed 05/07/21 Page 11 of 11

Exhibit A Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-1 Filed 05/07/21 Page 1 of 4

September 3, 2020 Sharon Lerner The Intercept 114 5th Ave NY NY 10011 Robin Schofield FOIA Officer Department of Health and Human Services National Institute of Health 5601 Fishers Lane Room 6G51 Rockville, MD 20892 301-451-5109 [email protected] September 03, 2020 FOIA REQUEST Fee waiver requested Dear FOIA Officer: 3XUVXDQW WR WKH IHGHUDO )UHHGRP RI ,QIRUPDWLRQ $FW  86& †  , UHTXHVW DFFHVV WR DQG FRSLHV RI proposals for and all written communications relating to the following grants: NIH 2020 Understanding Risk of Zoonotic Virus Emergence in EID Hotspots of Southeast Asia Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. 1,+  8QGHUVWDQGLQJ WKH 5LVN RI %DW &RURQDYLUXV (PHUJHQFH 'DV]DN 3HWHU  (FRKHDOWK $OOLDQFH ,QF NIH 2018 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. NIH 2017 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $597,112 NIH 2016 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. NIH 2015 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $630,445 NIH 2014 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $666,442 NIH 2012 Risk of Viral Emergence from Bats Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $518,980 NIH 2012 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. NIH 2012 Comparative Spillover Dynamics of Avian Influenza in Endemic Countries Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $300,000 Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-1 Filed 05/07/21 Page 2 of 4

NIH 2010 Risk of Viral Emergence from Bats Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $480,423 October, 2012 Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance inc. $22,890 NIH 2012 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $6,982 NIH 2011 Risk of Viral Emergence from Bats Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $510,005 NIH 2011 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $494,455 NIH 2011 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $266,919 NIH 2010 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $499,998 NIH 2010 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $199,992 NIH 2010 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. NIH 2009 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $499,975 NIH 2009 Risk of Viral Emergence from Bats Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $535,156 NIH 2003 Anthropogenic change &emerging zoonotic paramyxoviruses Daszak, Peter / Wildlife Trust $358,606 NIH 2002 Anthropogenic change &emerging zoonotic paramyxoviruses Daszak, Peter / Wildlife Trust $358,102 NIH 2009 R01 TW The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $204,688 NIH 2009 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $199,698 NIH 2009 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $51,225 NIH 2009 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $46,399 NIH 2008 Risk of Viral Emergence from Bats Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. NIH 2008 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $502,356 NIH 2008 R01 TW The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $150,000 NIH 2008 R01 TW The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $45,000 Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-1 Filed 05/07/21 Page 3 of 4

NIH 2005 Anthropogenic change &emerging zoonotic paramyxoviruses Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $662,576 NIH 2004 Anthropogenic change &emerging zoonotic paramyxoviruses Daszak, Peter / Wildlife Trust $359,654. I would like to receive the information in electronic form, preferably emailed to me. I agree to pay reasonable fees for the processing of this request up to $. Please notify me before incurring any expenses in excess of that amount. Fee Categorization For fee categorization purposes, I am a representative of the news media. Through this request, I am gathering information for my journalistic work with The Intercept. The Intercept is an award-winning news organization dedicated to holding the powerful accountable through fearless, adversarial journalism. Its in￾depth investigations and unflinching analysis focus on politics, war, surveillance, corruption, the environment, technology, criminal justice, the media, and more. Accordingly, I am only required to pay for WKH GLUHFW FRVW RI GXSOLFDWLRQ DIWHU WKH ILUVW  SDJHV  86& †  D  $ LL ,,  LG † 552(a)(4)(A)(iv)(II). Request for Fee Waiver Please waive any applicable fees. Release of the information is not primarily in my commercial interest and ZLOO FRQWULEXWH VLJQLILFDQWO\ WR SXEOLF XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI JRYHUQPHQW RSHUDWLRQV DQG DFWLYLWLHV  86& † 552(a)(4)(A)(iii). All the information I seek is for reporting that will enhance the public understanding of funding for emerging viral diseases. Request for Expedited Processing Please provide expedited processing of this request which concerns a matter of urgency. As a Investigative Reporter, I am primarily engaged in disseminating information. The public has an urgent need for information about the historic funding of research on emerging infectious diseases and coronaviruses because it is a critical piece of understanding the scientific work around the emergence of coronaviruses such as the Sar-CoV2. I certify that my statements concerning the need for expedited processing are true and correct to the best of my knowledge and belief. Conclusion If my request is denied in whole or part, please justify all withholdings by reference to specific exemptions DQG VWDWXWHV DV DSSOLFDEOH )RU HDFK ZLWKKROGLQJ SOHDVH DOVR H[SODLQ ZK\ \RXU DJHQF\ ³UHDVRQDEO\ IRUHVHHV WKDW GLVFORVXUH ZRXOG KDUP DQ LQWHUHVW SURWHFWHG E\ DQ H[HPSWLRQ´ RU ZK\ ³GLVFORVXUH LV SURKLELWHG E\ ODZ>@´  86& †  D  $ L  I would appreciate your communicating with me by email or telephone, rather than by mail. I look forward to your determination regarding my request for expedited processing within 10 calendar days, as the statute requires. Thank you in advance for your assistance. Sincerely, Sharon Lerner Investigative Reporter, The Intercept  VKDURQOHUQHU#WKHLQWHUFHSWFRP Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-1 Filed 05/07/21 Page 4 of 4

Exhibit B Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-2 Filed 05/07/21 Page 1 of 5

Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-2 Filed 05/07/21 Page 2 of 5 {LL mummmmsmsnanss LL me me sn Es a Tonk hen ‘Via email: sharon [email protected] com September 17, 2020 Sharon Lemer ‘The Intercept 114 5th Ave New York, NY 10011 Re: FOI Case No. 55058 eo ‘This acknowledges your September 3, 2020, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request addressed to National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) FOIA Office, which ‘was received in this office the same day. You requested copies of the following grants: NIH 2020 Understanding Risk of Zoonotic Virus Emergence in EID Hotspots of Southeast Asia Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. NIH 2019 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. NIH 2018 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. NIH 2017 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $597,112 ‘NIH 2016 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. NIH 2015 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $630,445 NIH 2014 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $666,442

Page 2 – Ms. Lerner (55058) NIH 2012 Risk of Viral Emergence from Bats Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $518,980 NIH 2012 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter /Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. NIH 2012 Comparative Spillover Dynamics of Avian Influenza in Endemic Countries Daszak, Peter /Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $300,000 NIH 2010 Risk of Viral Emergence from Bats Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $480,423 October, 2012 Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance inc. $22,890 NIH 2012 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $6,982 NIH 2011 Risk of Viral Emergence from Bats Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $510,005 NIH 2011 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $494,455 NIH 2011 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $266,919 NIH 2010 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $499,998 NIH 2010 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $199,992 NIH 2010 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. NIH 2009 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $499,975 NIH 2009 Risk of Viral Emergence from Bats Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $535,156 NIH 2003 Anthropogenic change &emerging zoonotic paramyxoviruses Daszak, Peter / Wildlife Trust $358,606 NIH 2002 Anthropogenic change &emerging zoonotic paramyxoviruses Daszak, Peter / Wildlife Trust $358,102 Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-2 Filed 05/07/21 Page 3 of 5

Page 3 – Ms. Lerner (55058) NIH 2009 R01 TW The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $204,688 NIH 2009 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $199,698 NIH 2009 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $51,225 NIH 2009 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $46,399 NIH 2008 Risk of Viral Emergence from Bats Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. NIH 2008 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $502,356 NIH 2008 R01 TW The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $150,000 NIH 2008 R01 TW The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $45,000 NIH 2005 Anthropogenic change &emerging zoonotic paramyxoviruses Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $662,576 NIH 2004 Anthropogenic change &emerging zoonotic paramyxoviruses Daszak, Peter / Wildlife Trust $359,654. You also requested expedited processing. The FOIA, 5 U.S.C. §552(a)(6)(E), requires agencies to consider requests for expedited processing and grant them whenever a “compelling need” is shown and in other cases as determined by the agency. The term “compelling need” is defined as (1) involving “an imminent threat to the life or physical safety of an individual,” or (2) in the case of a request made by “a person primarily engaged in disseminating information, urgency to inform the public concerning actual or alleged Federal Government activity.” The compelling need standard is “intended to be narrowly applied.” Al-Fayed v. CIA, 254 F.3d 300, 310 (D.C. Cir. 2001). Your request does not meet the standards of “compelling need,” therefore, I am denying your request for expedited processing. We are searching the files of the NIAID for records responsive to your request. If any documents responsive to your request are located, they will be reviewed for releasability, and all releasable information will be sent to you. We will do everything possible to comply with your Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-2 Filed 05/07/21 Page 4 of 5

Page 4 – Ms. Lerner (55058) request in a timely manner. Please contact the NIAID FOIA Office at [email protected] or 301-451-5109 for additional information or to inquire about the status of your request. Provisions of the FOIA allow us to recover part of the cost of complying with your request. We shall charge you for records in accordance with the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) FOIA Regulations as they apply to news media requesters; i.e., you will be charged for duplication at 10-cents per page although the first 100 pages are free; there is no charge for search or review time. Please be advised that the HHS FOIA Regulations allow us to charge for search time even if we do not locate any responsive records or if we determine that some or all of the responsive records are exempt under one of the FOIA’s nine exemptions. Because we are uncertain that applicable fees will exceed our minimum charge ($25.00), we are not addressing your request for a fee waiver at this time. However, if it is determined that there will be fees associated with processing your request, we will contact you at that time If you are not satisfied with the processing and handling of this request, you may contact the NIH FOIA Public Liaison and/or the Office of Government Information Services (OGIS): NIH FOIA Public Liaison OGIS Stephanie Clipper National Archives and Records Admin. Public Affairs Specialist 8601 Adelphi Rd - OGIS Office of Communications and Public Liaison College Park, MD 20740-6001 Building 31, Room 5B35 202-741-5770 (phone) 31 Center Drive 1-877-684-6448 (toll-free) Bethesda, MD 20814 202-741-5769 (fax) 301-496-1828 (phone) [email protected] (email) 301-496-0818 (fax) [email protected] (email) Sincerely, Gorka Garcia-Malene Freedom of Information Officer, NIH Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-2 Filed 05/07/21 Page 5 of 5

Exhibit C Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-3 Filed 05/07/21 Page 1 of 4

Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-3 Filed 05/07/21 Page 2 of 4 {LL mummmmsmsnaanss LL me me sn Es pe Tonk hen Via email: Sharon [email protected] December 18, 2020 Sharon Leer The Intercept 114 5% Ave New York, NY 10011 roc ss Dear Ms. Lerner: ‘This is the final response to your September 3, 2020, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request addressed to National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) FOIA Office, ‘which was received in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) FOIA office on the same day. You requested copies of proposals for and all written communications relating to the following 5 «NIH 2020 Understanding Risk of Zoonotic Virus Emergence in EID Hotspots of Southeast Asia Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. «NIH 2019 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. + NIH 2018 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. + NIH 2017 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $597,112 + NIH 2016 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. «NIH 2015 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $630,445 «NIH 2014 Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $666,442 EE ecomserromrmesmsmritemn. $518,980 «NTH 2012 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc.

Page 2 – Ms. Lerner (55058) x NIH 2012 Comparative Spillover Dynamics of Avian Influenza in Endemic Countries Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $300,000 x NIH 2010 Risk of Viral Emergence from Bats Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $480,423 October, 2012 Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance inc. $22,890 x NIH 2012 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $6,982 x NIH 2011 Risk of Viral Emergence from Bats Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $510,005 x NIH 2011 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $494,455 x NIH 2011 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $266,919 x NIH 2010 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $499,998 x NIH 2010 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $199,992 x NIH 2010 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. x NIH 2009 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $499,975 x NIH 2009 Risk of Viral Emergence from Bats Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $535,156 x NIH 2003 Anthropogenic change &emerging zoonotic paramyxoviruses Daszak, Peter / Wildlife Trust $358,606 x NIH 2002 Anthropogenic change &emerging zoonotic paramyxoviruses Daszak, Peter / Wildlife Trust $358,102 x NIH 2009 R01 TW The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $204,688 x NIH 2009 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $199,698 x NIH 2009 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $51,225 x NIH 2009 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $46,399 x NIH 2008 Risk of Viral Emergence from Bats Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. x NIH 2008 The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $502,356 x NIH 2008 R01 TW The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $150,000 x NIH 2008 R01 TW The Ecology, Emergence and Pandemic Potential of Nipah virus in Bangladesh Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $45,000 x NIH 2005 Anthropogenic change &emerging zoonotic paramyxoviruses Daszak, Peter / Ecohealth Alliance, Inc. $662,576 NIH 2004 Anthropogenic change &emerging zoonotic paramyxoviruses Daszak, Peter / Wildlife Trust $359,654. Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-3 Filed 05/07/21 Page 3 of 4

Page 3 – Ms. Lerner (55058) We queried NIAID for records responsive to your request. The records you requested involve pending investigations. I have determined to withhold those records pursuant to Exemption 7(A), 5 U.S.C. § 552, and section 5.31 (g)(l) of the HHS FOIA Regulations, 45 CFR Part 5. Exemption 7(A) permits the withholding of investigatory records compiled for law enforcement purposes when disclosure could reasonably be expected to interfere with enforcement proceedings. You have the right to appeal this determination to deny you access to information in the Agency’s possession. Should you wish to do so, your appeal must be sent within ninety (90) days of the date of this letter, following the procedures outlined in Subpart F of the HHS FOIA Regulations (https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2016/10/28/2016-25684/freedom-of￾information-regulations) to: Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs Agency Chief FOIA Officer U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs, Room 729H 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, DC 20201 Clearly mark both the envelope and your letter “Freedom of Information Act Appeal.” If you are not satisfied with the processing and handling of this request, you may contact the NIH FOIA Public Liaison and/or the Office of Government Information Services (OGIS): NIH FOIA Public Liaison OGIS Stephanie Clipper National Archives and Records Admin. Public Affairs Specialist 8601 Adelphi Rd - OGIS Office of Communications and Public Liaison College Park, MD 20740-6001 Building 31, Room 5B35 202-741-5770 (phone) 31 Center Drive 1-877-684-6448 (toll-free) Bethesda, MD 20814 202-741-5769 (fax) 301-496-5633 (phone) [email protected] (email) 301-496-0818 (fax) [email protected] (email) Sincerely, Gorka Garcia-Malene Freedom of Information Officer, NIH Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-3 Filed 05/07/21 Page 4 of 4

Exhibit D Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-4 Filed 05/07/21 Page 1 of 7

114 Fifth Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10011 CC9CD1>D (53B5D1BI 6?B %E2<93 6619BC 75>3I 8956 $ $66935B *( [email protected]=5>D ?6 51<D8 1>4 E=1> (5BF935C $66935 ?6 D85 CC9CD1>D (53B5D1BI 6?B %E2<93 6619BC '??=   >[email protected]>45>35 F5>E5 (, ,1C89>7D?>  535=25B               51B $ @@51<C $66935B C D85 9BCD =5>4=5>D ?E>C5< 1D 9BCD !??; >CD9DED5  GB9D5 D? [email protected]@51< #QC 535=25B  45>91< ?6 B554?= ?6 >6?B=1D9?> 3D B5AE5CD   69<54 ?> ([email protected]=25B  2I (81B?> !5B>5B "C !5B>5B 9C 1> 9>F5CD971D9F5 [email protected]?BD5B 6?B  #! # 1 @E2<931D9?> ?6 9BCD !??; >CD9DED5  [email protected]@51< D85 4539C9?> D? 5>D9B5<I G9D88?<4 1<< B5AE5CD54 B53?B4C @EBCE1>D D?  *( K  2 1 @<19><I 9>[email protected]@<9312<5 [email protected]?> %<51C5 >?D5 6?B D85 @[email protected]?C5 ?6 D89C [email protected]@51<  1= 259>7 1CC9CD54 2I +93D?B91  #?2<5 G8? 9C D85 9BCD =5>4=5>D 5<<?G 1D 9BCD !??; >CD9DED5 >?D I5D 14=9DD54 D? @B13D935 )85 B5AE5CD C?E78D [email protected] ?6 @[email protected]?C1<C 6?B 1>4 GB9DD5> 3?==E>931D9?>C B571B49>7 D85 6?<<?G9>7 7B1>DC D? B %5D5B 1CJ1; 1>4 89C ?B71>9J1D9?> 3?851<D8 <<91>35 !! • # *>45BCD1>49>7 '9C; ?6 .??>?D93 +9BEC =5B75>35 9>  [email protected]?DC ?6 (?ED851CD C91 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3 • #  *>45BCD1>49>7 D85 '9C; ?6 1D ?B?>1F9BEC =5B75>35 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3 • #  *>45BCD1>49>7 D85 '9C; ?6 1D ?B?>1F9BEC =5B75>35 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3 • #  *>45BCD1>49>7 D85 '9C; ?6 1D ?B?>1F9BEC =5B75>35 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3  • #  *>45BCD1>49>7 D85 '9C; ?6 1D ?B?>1F9BEC =5B75>35 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3 Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-4 Filed 05/07/21 Page 2 of 7

114 Fifth Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10011 • #  *>45BCD1>49>7 D85 '9C; ?6 1D ?B?>1F9BEC =5B75>35 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3   • #  *>45BCD1>49>7 D85 '9C; ?6 1D ?B?>1F9BEC =5B75>35 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3  • # '9C; ?6 +9B1< =5B75>35 6B?= 1DC 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3   • # )85 3?<?7I =5B75>35 1>4 %1>45=93 %?D5>D91< ?6 #[email protected] F9BEC 9> 1>7<145C8 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3 • # [email protected] (@9<<?F5B I>1=93C ?6 F91> >6<E5>J1 9> >45=93 ?E>DB95C 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3  • # '9C; ?6 +9B1< =5B75>35 6B?= 1DC 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3   $3D?25B 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 9>3  • # )85 3?<?7I =5B75>35 1>4 %1>45=93 %?D5>D91< ?6 #[email protected] F9BEC 9> 1>7<145C8 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3  • # '9C; ?6 +9B1< =5B75>35 6B?= 1DC 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3    • # )85 3?<?7I =5B75>35 1>4 %1>45=93 %?D5>D91< ?6 #[email protected] F9BEC 9> 1>7<145C8 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3  • # )85 3?<?7I =5B75>35 1>4 %1>45=93 %?D5>D91< ?6 #[email protected] F9BEC 9> 1>7<145C8 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3   • # )85 3?<?7I =5B75>35 1>4 %1>45=93 %?D5>D91< ?6 #[email protected] F9BEC 9> 1>7<145C8 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3  • # )85 3?<?7I =5B75>35 1>4 %1>45=93 %?D5>D91< ?6 #[email protected] F9BEC 9> 1>7<145C8 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3  • # )85 3?<?7I =5B75>35 1>4 %1>45=93 %?D5>D91< ?6 #[email protected] F9BEC 9> 1>7<145C8 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3 • #  )85 3?<?7I =5B75>35 1>4 %1>45=93 %?D5>D91< ?6 #[email protected] F9BEC 9> 1>7<145C8 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3  • #  '9C; ?6 +9B1< =5B75>35 6B?= 1DC 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3    • # >[email protected]?75>93 381>75 5=5B79>7 J??>?D93 @1B1=IH?F9BEC5C 1CJ1; %5D5B ,9<4<965 )BECD   • # >[email protected]?75>93 381>75 5=5B79>7 J??>?D93 @1B1=IH?F9BEC5C 1CJ1; %5D5B ,9<4<965 )BECD  • #  ' ), )85 3?<?7I =5B75>35 1>4 %1>45=93 %?D5>D91< ?6 #[email protected] F9BEC 9> 1>7<145C8 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3  • #  )85 3?<?7I =5B75>35 1>4 %1>45=93 %?D5>D91< ?6 #[email protected] F9BEC 9> 1>7<145C8 1CJ1; %5D5B 3?851<D8 <<91>35 >3  Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-4 Filed 05/07/21 Page 3 of 7

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114 Fifth Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10011  13D9F9DIP ?B C53EB9DI B9C;C 1>4 1> 945>D96912<5 9>49F94E1< ?B 9>3945>D #! %      4    9B  #! ! #&  #$" %     4      9B  531EC5 # 9C >?D @B9=1B9<I 1 <1G 5>6?B35=5>D 175>3I 9DC 3<19= D81D D85 B5AE5CD54 B53?B4C G5B5 [email protected]<54 6?B <1G 5>6?B35=5>D @[email protected]?C5C O=ECDP 25 OC3BED9>9J5/40 G9D8 C?=5 C;[email protected]=P D? @B5F5>D OD85 5H35CC9F5 G9D88?<49>7 ?6 175>3I B53?B4C G8938 ?>7B5CC 45>?E>354 1>4 C?E78D D? 1F?94/0P !## % "#!   4      9B   )85 B53?B4C 1D 9CCE5 3?>C9CD ?6 C395>D9693 B5C51B38 7B1>D @[email protected]?C1<C 1>4 B5<1D54 3?==E>931D9?>C )85 # 494 >?D [email protected]<5 D85C5 B53?B4C @EBCE1>D D? 1>I 9>F5CD971D9?> ?B ?D85B <1G 5>6?B35=5>D @[email protected]?C5N>?B 4?5C 9D 3<19= D? 81F5 4?>5 C? '1D85B D85 # <9;5<I 3B51D54 1>4 [email protected]<54 D85C5 B53?B4C 6?B D85 @[email protected]?C5 ?6 1G1B49>7 B5C51B38 7B1>D =?>5I )85 # @B?F9454 >? 613DC CE775CD9>7 D81D D85 B5AE5CD54 4?3E=5>DC 1B?C5 O?ED ?6 9>F5CD971D9?>C G8938 6?3EC 49B53D<I ?> [email protected]<<I 1<<5754 9<<571< 13DCLG8938 3?E<4 96 @B?F54 B5CE<D 9> 39F9< ?B 3B9=9>1< C1>3D9?>CP !# %      4     9B  9>D5B>1< 39D1D9?>C 1>4 AE?D1D9?> =1B;C ?=9DD54 )85 175>3IQC 21B5 1CC5BD9?> D81D 5F5BI [email protected]?>C9F5 B53?B4 3?>35B>9>7 D85 7B1>D @[email protected]?C1<C C?=58?G O9>F?<F5/C0 @5>49>7 9>F5CD971D9?>C/0P 9C [email protected]<I 9>CE669395>D D? [email protected] D85 4?3E=5>DC 6B?= 49C3<?CEB5 E>45B mail protected]?>  CCE=9>7 D81D D85 # [email protected]<54 D85 B5AE5CD54 B53?B4C @EBCE1>D D? 1> 9>F5CD971D9?>N1 [email protected]?D85D931< D81D D85 F17E5 1CC5BD9?>C 9> #QC 45>91< <5DD5B 1B5 9>CE669395>D D? [email protected]@?BDN?><I D85 B5CE<D1>D 9>F5CD971D?BI 69<5 G?E<4 C1D9C6I mail protected]?> QC D8B5C8?<4 B5AE9B5=5>D $  % ! !%"    ([email protected]@     O/)085 [email protected]?>5>D 45B9F1D9F5 @1BDC ?6 1 3B9=9>1< /?B 39F9<0 9>F5CD971D?BI 69<5 G85> 3?>C945B54 9>[email protected]>45>D<I 1>4 G9D8?ED B565B5>35 D? D85 B5=19>45B ?6 D85 =1D5B91<C 9> D85 9>F5CD971D?BI 69<5 =1I >?D 25 3?F5B54 2I 1>I [email protected]?> 6B?= $/0P  "C !5B>5B 494 >?D B5AE5CD 1> 9>F5CD971D?BI 69<5 (85 B5AE5CD54 [email protected] ?6 1>4 1<< GB9DD5> 3?==E>931D9?>C B5<1D9>7 D?P 49C3B5D5 B5C51B38 7B1>DC G8938 C85 <9CD54 9>49F94E1<<I 9> 85B 9>9D91< $ B5AE5CD )81D D85C5 7B1>DC =1I >?G 25 D85 CE2:53D ?6 ?B ?D85BG9C5 [email protected]<931D54 9> 1> # 9>F5CD971D9?> 9C 9BB5<5F1>D F5> 96 D85 B5AE5CD54 B53?B4C G5B5 3B51D54 6?B <1G 5>6?B35=5>D @[email protected]?C5C mail protected]?>  1ED8?B9J5C D859B >?>49C3<?CEB5 O?><I D? D85 5HD5>D D81D D85 @B?4E3D9?> ?6 CE38 B53?B4C G?E<4L9>D5B65B5 G9D8 5>6?B35=5>D @B?35549>7CP !"  *( 1D  9>D5B>1< 39D1D9?>C 1>4 AE?D1D9?> =1B;C ?=9DD54 ,9D88?<49>7 D85 4?3E=5>DC 9C ?><I [email protected]@[email protected] G85> O9D 3?E<4 25 B51C?>12<I [email protected] D81D 49C3<?CEB5 G?E<4 81B= D85 @B?35549>7C #! ! #&  #$"  4 1D   9>D5B>1< 39D1D9?>C 1>4 AE?D1D9?> Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-4 Filed 05/07/21 Page 5 of 7

114 Fifth Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10011  =1B;C ?=9DD54 )85 # @B?F9454 12C?<ED5<I >? [email protected]<1>1D9?> 1C D? 8?G 49C3<?C9>7 D85 B5AE5CD54 9>6?B=1D9?> 3?E<4 <514 D? 81B= )85 B5AE5CD54 4?3E=5>DC 3?>35B> B5C51B38 7B1>DC D81D 81F5 ?B 1B5 <9;5<I D? B5CE<D 9> @E2<9C854 1BD93<5C =145 1F19<12<5 D? D85 @E2<93 > <978D ?6 D85 >1DEB5 ?6 D85 B5AE5CD54 =1D5B91<C 49C3<?CEB5 9C 8978<I E><9;5<I D? 9>D5B65B5 G9D8 1>I @?D5>D91< <1G 5>6?B35=5>D @B?35549>7C  ! #! ! #&  #$" 8?<49>7 D81D D85 7?F5B>=5>D B51C?>12<I @B5493D54 D81D D81D 49C3<?C9>7 D85 >1=5C ?6 [email protected] 45D19>54 @EBCE1>D D? 1 7<?21< 3?E>D5BD5BB?B9C= 9>F5CD971D9?> G?E<4 5>12<5 1< &1541 D? CDI=I D85 9>F5CD971D9?>  4 1D   '5<51C5 ?6 D89C 9>6?B=1D9?> 9C 9> D85 @E2<93 9>D5B5CD 2531EC5 9D G9<< C97>96931>D<I 3?>DB92ED5 D? D85 @E2<93 E>45BCD1>49>7 ?6 7?F5B>=5>D [email protected]?>C 1>4 13D9F9D95C 3?>35B>9>7 7?F5B>=5>D 6E>49>7 ?6 9>D? 41>75B?EC J??>?D93 49C51C5C )85C5 B53?B4C B5<1D5 D? C5F5B1< # 7B1>DC D? F9B?<?79CD B %5D5B 1CJ1; D? CDE4I D85 5=5B75>35 ?6 J??>?D93 49C51C5C CE38 1C (1BC?+  D85 F9BEC [email protected]?>C92<5 6?B D85 $+  @1>45=93 '5C51B38 45=?>CDB1D5C D81D 1 25DD5B E>45BCD1>49>7 ?6 J??>?D93 49C51C5C DB1>C=9DD54 6B?= 21DC D? 8E=1>CMM9>3<E49>7 (1BC?+  "'( 1>4 2?<1N9C 3BE391< 6?B 566?BDC D? @B5F5>D D85 >5HD 7<?21< @1>45=93 )85 9==5>C5 41=175 31EC54 2I D85 $+  @1>45=93N G8938 C8B1>; D85 7<?21< 53?>?=I 2I 1 @B?:53D54  @5B35>D 1>4 B5CE<D54 9> =?B5 D81>  =9<<9?> <9F5C <?CD 2I D85 5>4 ?6 NB5>45BC 7?F5B>=5>D6E>454 B5C51B38 D81D =1I 85<@ @B5F5>D D85 >5HD @1>45=93 1 =1DD5B ?6 9>45<92<5 @E2<93 3?>35B> # GB?>76E<<I G9D885<4 B53?B4C 3?>35B>9>7 6E>49>7 6?B D89C F9D1< B5C51B38 )89C C5>C5<5CC C53B53I 3?>D9>E5C D? @B5F5>D "C !5B>5B 6B?= 54E31D9>7 D85 @E2<93 12?ED 566?BDC D? E>45BCD1>4 1>4 3?=21D 41>75B?EC J??>?D93 49C51C5C F5> 96 # 25<95F5C D81D C?=5 ?6 D85 9>6?B=1D9?> 9> D85C5 B53?B4C 9C [email protected] G5 B5AE5CD D81D D85I 25 B5<51C54 1C 1 =1DD5B        6&$( #$&"($#2  $!$-0 "&# # #" $(#(! $ % &)' # #!'7 9!'( '' 3 >=0 ><><: ((%'288&!&%$&(&3#3$*8&$('8(!'85%&$( F?AEC>/ *($#F!'1      0 6&$( #$&"($#2 #&'(##  '  ( $&$#*&)' "&#07 9!'( )%( & A0 ><><:3 ((%'288&!&%$&(&3#3$*8&$('8(!'85%&$( [email protected]>=/ (" )"FE/($(! ("'FCD >A/'& F>?B>@<C>>@?CD<DBBEC<=E?/'& $F"&(/&')!(-%F%&$('/% F=/%.F=<</'$&(!F/'$&(&&F/!(&'F/#*($#F&);&')!('3 ! (##0 ( !30 6&# # &$''4%' &#'"''$# $ ( $&$#*&)'' # #07 ==     @>?A 9><><:3 *!! (2 ((%'288+++3#()&3$"8&(!'8'@[email protected]<=C4 <<E>?4D1 &'(# &'$#0 ( !30 6#('(' $)' $# (' $& !)' ($ &*#(  ,( #"07     3 [email protected] ><><0 ((%'288%#+'3$"8&(!8%#"'4&.!4&$44#&$4 #"!'4$&'('4AC@C=D><E@?AB>B<C<DC3 #(&#($#! $#(&- )#0 6$&! $#$" )(!$$ %(0 )# ><><07 ((%'288+++3"3$&8#8)!($#'88 '')'8><><8<B8>@8%( )#><><1 $#' $% #'0 64=E '$& -  #(& $& -'("' # # ##&# 9: ( $#' $% #' #*&'(- 9 :07 !'( )%( 3 [email protected] ><><0 ((%'288$&$#*&)'3)3)8"%3("!3 Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-4 Filed 05/07/21 Page 6 of 7

114 Fifth Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10011  ?6 49C3B5D9?> 79F5> D85 [email protected]<<9>7 @E2<93 9>D5B5CD 9> 9>3B51C9>7 @E2<93 ;>?G<5475 ?6 7?F5B>=5>D 6E>49>7 6?B B5C51B38 9>D? J??>?D93 49C51C5C ?B D85C5 B51C?>C G5 B5AE5CD D81D D85 # B5<51C5 1<< [email protected][email protected]<I G9D885<4 B53?B4C 75B=1>5 D? "C !5B>5BQC $ B5AE5CD )85 619<EB5 D? 4? C? G?E<4 25 9>[email protected]<5 G9D8 D85 @[email protected]?C5 ?6 $ D? @B?=?D5 [email protected]>>5CC 9> 7?F5B>=5>D 1>4 5>CEB5 1> 9>6?B=54 39D9J5>BI %<51C5 4? >?D 85C9D1D5 D? 3?>D13D EC 96 I?E 81F5 1>I AE5CD9?>C 12?ED D89C [email protected]@51< ,5 31> 25 B513854 2I @8?>5 2I 31<<9>7 +93D?B91 #?2<5 1D    ?B 2I 5=19< 1D +93D?B91#?2<5)85>[email protected]3?= ,5 <??; 6?BG1B4 D? B5C?<F9>7 D89C =1DD5B @[email protected]<I -?EBC DBE<I C 1F94 B1<?G (5>9?B +935 %B5C945>D !1G 9BCD !??; >CD9DED5 41F942B1<?GD859>[email protected]3?=   Case 1:21-cv-04024-GHW Document 9-4 Filed 05/07/21 Page 7 of 7

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